This means that we need a pipe that is 10.3 feet long in order for the pollutants to be reduced to 10% of their starting amount.
One of the most well-known is the Carbon-14 dating method.
These methods are generally very accurate and valuable, but a couple of considerations must be made regarding certain of these methods.
Again, we find a "chance" process being described by an exponential decay law.
We can easily find an expression for the chance that a radioactive atom will "survive" (be an original element atom) to at least a time t.
The most famous of these methods uses Carbon-14, and a complete discussion is presented here in order to fully understand WHY it is pretty accurate and why, when careful science is done, the results are very reliable.
Science uses radioactive isotopes to determine the age of many objects from the ancient past.The stable form of carbon is carbon 12 and the radioactive isotope carbon 14 decays over time into nitrogen 14 and other particles.Carbon is naturally in all living organisms and is replenished in the tissues by eating other organisms or by breathing air that contains carbon.Thus, if we start out with 1 gram of the parent isotope, after the passage of 1 half-life there will be 0.5 gram of the parent isotope left.After the passage of two half-lives only 0.25 gram will remain, and after 3 half lives only 0.125 will remain etc.The kerosene is purified by removing pollutants, using a clay filter.